The Miseducation of English Learners

A Tale of Three States and Lessons to be Learned

Edited by:
Grace P. McField, California State University, San Marcos

Published 2014

Sometimes you need to hear the story from the beginning. The Miseducation of English Learners examines the initial policy impact of Structured English Immersion (SEI), an English-only program mandated for English Learners (ELs) in California, Arizona, and Massachusetts in the United States. The book features analyses of: the legal context and parameters of SEI; research history on SEI; SEI language policy and policy implementation according to situated context; and the educational priorities and legal rights of ELs. The book examines the history of SEI in the educational research literature and as it has been interpreted in the context of the legal requirement for schools to take “appropriate action” to meet the needs of ELs following the historic Lau v. Nichols (1974) court decision. The Miseducation of English Learners also presents and considers the implementation of SEI in comparative contexts from various perspectives including teacher education, the classroom, and legal. In several of the chapters, SEI implementation is examined in concert with other factors that have effected the teaching and progress of ELs such as Senate Bill 2042 (2001) that overhauled the teacher education process in California, and the federal No Child Left Behind legislation (signed into law on January 8, 2002). Moreover, the book provides implications and recommendations for teaching, research, advocacy, and policy change.

The Miseducation of English Learners addresses and invites the readers to consider the following key questions:

• How “appropriate” is the mandated SEI program for ELs, both in substance and in the one-year duration as specified in the three voter-initiated propositions (Proposition 227, Proposition 203, and Question 2)?

• What issues, themes, and patterns can be noted in the implementation of SEI in California, Arizona, and Massachusetts?

• Why might the student outcomes not show the desired results in measures such as achievement test scores or dropout rates?

• What necessary changes are called for in order to enhance (or in some cases supplant) the SEI programs and services in place for ELs?

• Are ELs, parents, and other stakeholders able to thoughtfully select desired and optimal instructional programs, and participate meaningfully in the educational process of language minority students under the SEI mandates?

CONTENTS
Foreword, Stephen Krashen, University of Southern California. Overview, Grace P. McField, California State University, San Marcos. Introduction, Grace P. McField, California State University, San Marcos and Terry Wiley, President, Center for Applied Linguistics. 1. Proposition 227, Proposition 203, and Question 2 in the Context of Legal Rights for English Language Learners, Eric Haas, WestEd. 2. History of Structured English Immersion, Grace P. McField, California State University, San Marcos. 3. What is Structured English Immersion Post-1998? The Implementation of Proposition 227 by California School Districts, Grace P. McField, California State University, San Marcos. 4. California’s Implementation of Proposition 227: Focus on Teacher Education, Sharon Ulanoff, California State University, Los Angeles. 5. A Retrospective Look at California’s Implementation of Proposition 227: Focus on Bilingual Teacher Education and Student Performance, Clara C. Park, California State University, Northridge. 6. The Effectiveness of Proposition 203 in Arizona, Kellie Rolstad, Jeff MacSwan, University of Maryland and Kate Mahoney, SUNY Fredonia. 7. Teaching English Language Learners in Post-Proposition 203 Arizona: Structured English Immersion or Sink-or-Swim Submersion? Wayne Wright, University of Texas, San Antonio. 8. A District’s Response to the Passage of Question 2 in Massachusetts, Mary Cazabon, WestEd. 9. A Policy Nexus: Negotiating Question 2’s Mandate for Structured English Immersion in Practice, Ester de Jong, University of Florida. 10. A New Twist on The One Best System: Structured English Immersion Initiatives, Equal Opportunity, and Freedom to Learn, Rachel Moran, Dean, School of Law, University of California, Los Angeles. 11. Reflecting on the Consequences of Imposed Educational Polices: Conclusions and Implications, Terry Wiley, President, Center for Applied Linguistics. Appendix: The consistent outcome of bilingual education programs: A meta-analysis of meta-analyses, Grace P. McField, California State University, San Marcos and David R. McField, University of Southern California.