Globalization on the Margins (2nd Edition)

Education and Post-Socialist Transformations in Central Asia

Edited by:
Iveta Silova, Arizona State University
Sarfaroz Niyozov, University of Toronto

Published 2020

Reflecting on almost three decades of postsocialist transformations, the second edition of Globalization on the Margins explores continuities and changes in Central Asian education development since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, with a particular focus on the developments that took place since the production of the first edition in 2011. Rather than viewing these transformations in isolation, the authors place their analyses within the global context by reflecting on the interaction between Soviet legacies and global education reform pressures in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. This new edition, in addition to a revised introduction and a newly added conclusion, consists of four thematic sections, each reflecting a key theme in the educational life of the Central Asian states. These thematic sections, introduction and conclusion collectively update our understanding of the recent developments and challenges in education of the five Central Asian states. They, however, go beyond mere information update, so as to complicate, re-engage, re-form and re-define the margins, taking up ‘margins’ a conceptual, geographic, cultural, and geo-political construct. Notwithstanding the diversity of local and international authors, variety of theoretical perspectives, methodological approaches, and conceptual lenses, the essays reveal the complexity and uncertainty of the post-socialist education transformations. Instead of portraying the transition process as the influx of Western ideas into the region, Globalization on the Margins provides new lenses to critically example education as a contested field of diverse perspectives, competing forces, and multidirectional flow of ideas, concepts, and reforms in Central Asia.


"Hindsight famously brings clarity. And, much of what happened after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union has now been correctly deeded over to historians. Nonetheless, we ignore that history at our peril. The contributors to this volume show that carefully textured and historically attuned education research generates deep insights into ongoing transformations and the political, cultural, social and economic structures, relations, and practices that do the work of producing margins and centers in the first place."
~ Noah W. Sobe, Loyola University Chicago

"Globalization on the margins and at the epicentre of the battles of the Great Powers. Two excellent educators, Sarfaroz Niyozov and Iveta Silova, compiled a timely and long-awaited scholarly work based on empirical research in societies, which had similar history close to three decades ago. All the contributors are prolific educators who know the education system from within and without, who either hailed from the region or have spent a considerable amount of time to know the systems well. The book contains remarkable stories of education through the ups and downs of historical evolution. It is a must-read primer for anyone interested in learning about high quality research in the field of education in Central Asia. It is a huge contribution to educational research with an impact on research and teaching for years to come."
~ Duishon Shamatov, Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan

"The challenge of moving Central Asia from the borders of the Soviet Empire to the world’s center is the focus of the discussions in ‘Globalization on the Margins.’ The transition to the Western models of education was happening in the context of major paradigm shift, which entire humanity was experiencing and which could be described as the arrival of the new post-industrial civilization. During this process, Central Asian countries have been pushed to the margins, because their contribution to the wealth of the new world know-how was much less pronounced than that of their Western neighbours. Therefore, investment into the research that contributes to local knowledge production seems a natural solution to the problem. All the contributors to this book have a vast experience in the region and many of their observations are thought provoking. This is a very insightful and much needed book."
~ Elena Lenskaya, Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences, Russia

Introduction: Education and Post-Socialist Transformations in Central Asia: Exploring Margins and Marginalities, Iveta Silova and Sarfaroz Niyozov. PART I: COMPLICATING THE MARGINS: INTERNATIONALIZATION AND HIGHER EDUCATION REFORMS. Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union: Recommendations for Reform in 1990—Were They Right? Stephen P. Heyneman. Internationalization of Higher Education in Central Asia: Implications Beyond the Intended, Martha C. Merrill. Accreditation as a Means of Quality Assurance System in Higher Education in Kazakhstan: Developments and Challenges, Sulushash Kerimkulova. The Development of University Research in Kazakhstan During 1991–2013: A Bibliometric View, Aliya Kuzhabekova. Higher Education Admissions Regimes in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: Difference Makes a Difference, Todd Drummond. Developing a Common Admissions System for Institutions of Higher Education: Contexts and Considerations, Nazarkhudo Dastambuev, George Bethell, and Algirdas Zabulionis. The Changing Status of Faculty Work and Life in the Universities of Tajikistan, Zumrad Kataeva and Alan J. DeYoung. Central Asian Higher Education on the Margins of the European (Dis)Integration, Voldemar Tomusk. PART II: RE-ENGAGING THE MARGINS: GLOBALIZATION AND NEW EDUCATION INEQUITIES. Language, Globalization, and Education in Central Asia, Stephen A. Bahry. Including Children With Disabilities in Tajikistan’s Education System: Global Ideas, Local Tensions, Kate Lapham. Efforts to Overcome Barriers to Girls’ Secondary Schooling in Rural Tajikistan: The Importance of Experiential Activities, Kara Janigan. Transition From Higher Education to Employment in Central Asia: Graduate Experiences in Post-Soviet Tajikistan, Dilrabo Jonbekova. Examining Education Change in Urban Kazakhstan: A Short Spatial Story, Elise S. Ahn and Juldyz Smagulova. Parents’ Perspectives on the Educational Market in Central Asia, Christopher Whitsel. PART III: REFORMING FROM THE MARGINS: THE CENTRALITY OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION. Ten-Plus-One Ways of Coping With Teacher Shortage in Kyrgyzstan: Before and After 2011, Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Nurbek Teleshaliyev. Teaching as a Profession in the Kyrgyz Republic: The Quest for (Re)Building the Knowledge Base, Alan J. DeYoung and Rakhat Zholdoshalieva. Blaming the Context Not the Culprit: Limitations on Student Control of Teacher Corruption in Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, Eric M. Johnson. Teachers’ Continuing Commitment in Kyrgyzstan, Nurbek Teleshaliyev. PART IV: REDEFINING THE MARGINS: INTERNATIONAL AID, GLOBAL SOLUTIONS, AND LOCAL RESPONSES. Researching Internationalization and Educational Reform in Kazakhstan, David Frost and Assel Kambatyrova. Middleman in the Global Education Marketplace: The Role of South Korea in Uzbekistan’s Education Transformations, Byoung-Gyu Gong. Moving Between Soviet and Post-Soviet Educations in Tajikistan: Institute of Professional Development as Response to Globalization, Sarfaroz Niyozov and Juma Bulbulov. Pedagogy and Power in Turkmenistan, Victoria Clement. PART V: CONCLUSION. Moving Central Asia From the Soviet Margins to the Global Center: Educational Implications and Conclusions, Sarfaroz Niyozov, Izza Tahir, and Iveta Silova. About the Contributors.