Handbook of STEM Faculty Development

Edited by:
Sandra M. Linder, Clemson University
Cindy M. Lee, Clemson University
Shannon K Stefl, Clemson University
Karen A. High, Clemson University

Published 2023

Faculty in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines face intensifying pressures in the 21st century, including multiple roles as educator, researcher, and entrepreneur. In addition to continuously increasing teaching and service expectations, faculty are engaged in substantive research that requires securing external funding, mentoring other faculty and graduate students, and disseminating this work in a broad range of scholarly outlets. Societal needs of their expertise include discovery, innovation, and workforce development. It is critical to provide STEM faculty with the professional development to support their complex roles and to base this development on evidence derived from research. This edited handbook provides STEM stakeholders with an opportunity to share studies and/or experiences that explore STEM faculty development (FD) in higher education settings. More specifically, we include work that examines faculty development planning, techniques/models, experiences, and outcomes focused on supporting the teaching, research, service, and leadership responsibilities of STEM faculty. The Handbook is suited for researchers and practitioners in STEM, STEM Education, Mathematics, Science, Technology, and Engineering disciplines. It is also suited towards faculty developers, higher education administrators, funding agencies, industry leaders, and the STEM community at large.

This handbook is organized around three constructs (INPUTS, MECHANISMS, and OUTPUTS). The STEM faculty development inputs construct focuses on topics related to the characteristics of faculty members and institutions that serve as barriers or supports to the adoption and implementation of holistic STEM faculty development programs. Questions addressed in the handbook around this topic include: What barriers/supports exist for STEM faculty? How are these barriers/supports being addressed through STEM FD? How do contexts (e.g., economic, political, historical) influence faculty/administrative needs related to STEM FD? How do demographics (e.g., gender, ethnicity, age, family background) influence faculty/administrative needs related to STEM FD? The STEM faculty development mechanisms construct focuses on topics related to the actual implementation of STEM faculty development and we consider the potential models or structures of STEM faculty development that are currently in place or conceptualized in theory. Questions addressed in the handbook around this topic include: What are the processes for developing models of STEM FD? What are effective models of STEM FD? How is effectiveness determined? What roles do stakeholders (e.g., faculty, administration, consultants) play within STEM FD mechanisms? The STEM faculty development outputs construct focuses on how to best understand the influence of STEM faculty development on outcomes such as productivity, teacher quality, and identity in relation to faculty development. Questions addressed in the handbook around this topic include: How has STEM FD influenced higher education practices and settings? What are appropriate output measures and how are they used in practice? What collaborations emerge from STEM FD? How does STEM FD affect other STEM stakeholders (e.g. students, administration, business, community)?

The aim for this handbook was to examine the multifaceted demands of faculty roles, and together with members of the STEM education community, envision pathways through which universities and individuals may support STEM colleagues, regardless of their experience or rank, to enjoy long and satisfying careers. Our hope is for these chapters to aid readers in deep reflection on challenges faculty face, to contemplate adaptations of models presented, and to draw inspiration for creating or engaging in new professional development programs. Chapters across this handbook highlight a variety of institutional contexts from 2-year technical colleges, to teaching-focused institutions, in addition to research-centric settings. Some chapters focus primarily on teaching and learning practices and offer models for improving STEM instruction. Others focus on barriers that emerge for STEM faculty when trying to engage in development experiences. There are chapters that examine tenure structures in relation to faculty development and how STEM FD efforts could support research endeavors. Mentorship and leadership models are also addressed along with a focus on equity issues that permeate higher education and impact STEM FD. It is our sincere hope that this Handbook sparks increased discourse and continued explorations related to STEM FD, and in particular, the intentional focus of faculty development initiatives to extend to the many facets of academic life.

Foreword, Julie A. Luft. Preface, Sandra M. Linder, Cindy Lee, Shannon K. Stefl, and Karen A. High. SECTION I: INPUTS TO STEM FACULTY DEVELOPMENT. Engineering Faculty Development for Adoption and Adaptation of New Instructional Practices, Edward J. Berger, Yonghee Lee, Jeffrey F. Rhoads, David Evenhouse, Fredy Rodríguez-Mejía, and Jennifer DeBoer. Voices of Engineering Faculty at the Margins: Supporting Professional Agency Through Faculty Development, Alexandra Coso Strong, Meagan R. Kendall, and Gemma Henderson. Challenges, Barriers, and Opportunities for Two-Year College STEM Professional Development, Kristin Frady. Lifting the Veil: Toward the Development of Culturally Liberative STEM Faculty Doctoral Mentors, Lisa R. Merriweather, Cathy D. Howell, Niesha Douglas, Anna Sanczyk, Kristin Villanueva, and Shaunelle Casey. Faculty Development in the Third Space: Influence of Hidden Curriculum Messages Amid STEM Educators, Idalis Villanueva Alarcón and Victoria Sellers. The Role and Influence of the Discipline-Based Education Research (DBER) Community on STEM Faculty Development, Erin Saitta and Julie Donnelly. SECTION II: MECHANISMS FOR STEM FACULTY DEVELOPMENT. Utilizing Data Analytics to Incorporate Racial Equity into STEM Faculty Development, Daniel Reinholz, Emily Schmied, Samantha Ridgway, and Niral Shah. An Inclusive Professional Framework for Faculty: Implementing Inclusive and Holistic Professional Development that Transcends Multiple Faculty Roles, April A. Dukes, Donald L. Gillian-Daniel, Robin McC. Greenler, Robin A. Parent, Sean Bridgen, Levon T. Esters, Jacqueline El-Sayed, and Lucas B. Hill. STEM Faculty Development for Creating Learning Environments That Promote Inclusive Excellence, Susan M. Keenan, Jodie D. Novak, Cassendra M. Bergstrom, Lori A. Reinsvold, and Kerry Englert. Merging Faculty Development and Critical Qualitative Research to Foster Equity in STEM Classrooms, Stephen Secules and Maimuna Begum Kali. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors as a Tool in STEM Faculty Development: A Systematic Literature Review, Kristen Ferris, Yan Chen, Sung Pil Kang, and Vanessa Svihla. Theorizing the Emotional Quality of Teaching and Learning Relationships in STEM Faculty Development, Roland Tormey, Ingrid Le Duc, and Siara Isaac. The Early Career Workshop for Geoscience Faculty: One Model for Multi Institution, Discipline-Based, Holistic STEM Faculty Development, Rachel J. Beane, Ellen R. Iverson, and R. Heather Macdonald. Reimagining Promotion and Tenure as a Tool for Faculty Development, Margaret Pinnell, Beth Hart, Kenya Crosson, and Aaron Altman. Engineering Faculty Development: Engaging Stakeholders for “Success” in Post Tenure Review, Christine S. Grant and Barbara Smith. Changing How STEM Faculty Teach by Changing What They Teach, Cori L Fata-Hartley, Paul C. Nelson, Rebecca L. Matz, and Melanie M. Cooper. Best Practices in Program Structure and Participant Engagement in STEM Faculty Development Programs, Lydia Ross, Stephen J. Krause, Eugene Judson, Keith Hjelmstad, James Middleton, Robert Culbertson, Kara Hjelmstad, Sarah Hoyt, and Lindy Mayled. Faculty Peer Review of Teaching for the 21st Century, James J. Pembridge and Chad M. Rohrbacher. Workplace Learning and Adaptability Frameworks for Conceptualizing Faculty Development, Grace Panther and Heidi A. Diefes-Dux. SECTION III: OUTPUTS FROM STEM FACULTY DEVELOPMENT. The Cycle of Inquiry: Building Effective Evaluation Relationships to Support Continuous Improvement of Faculty Development Initiatives, Charles N. Hayward, Tim Archie, Devan Daly, Timothy J. Weston, and Sandra L. Laursen. Broadening Participation Through the Lens of Person-Environment Fit: Lessons Learned From the NSF Advance Program, Stacie Furst-Holloway, Valerie Gray Hardcastle, and Rachel Kallen. Faculty Learning Communities as a Route to Inclusive Excellence in STEM, Marcelle A. Siegel, Yejun Bae, Terrell R. Morton, Courtney Ngai, Mojtaba Khajeloo, Swarna C. Mahapatra, Ritesh Sharma, Charles Nilon, and Johannes Schul. Faculty Development for Academic Change in the National Science Foundation Revolutionizing Engineering Departments (NSF RED) Context, Julia M. Williams, Eva Andrijcic, Sriram Mohan, Cara Margherio, Elizabeth Litzler, and Anna L. Swan. The Research and Engagement Academy: A Model for STEM Faculty Development, Orly Buchbinder, Eleanor Abrams, Dennis Britton, Julia G. Bryce, Leslie J. Couse, Jill McGaughy, and Barry Rock. Distributed Leadership: A Structure for STEM Faculty Development Workshops, L. Jeneva Clark, Emily Braley, and Jack Bookman. Design-Based Research Approaches for Creating Models of Discipline-Based Professional Learning, Margret A. Hjalmarson and Jill K. Nelson. Goal-Match Mentoring with Engineering Faculty of Color and Emeriti Faculty, Sylvia L. Mendez, Katie Johanson, Richard C. Sinclair, Valerie Martin Conley, Jennifer A. Tygret, Rosario A. Gerhardt, Comas Haynes, and Kinnis Gosha. A Cross-Institutional Faculty Online Learning Community: Community-Guided Faculty Development in Teaching College Geometry for Teachers, Tuyin An, Inese Berzina-Pitcher, Victoria Bigelow, Amanda Brown, Orly Buchbinder, Patricio Herbst, Carolyn Hetrick, Nathaniel Miller, Priya V. Prasad, Laura J. Pyzdrowski, Julia St. Goar, Ruthmae Sears, Steve Szydlik, and Sharon Vestal. A Five Stage Faculty Development Program to Transform Introductory Courses in Computer Science: The IntroCS POGIL Project, Clif Kussmaul, Helen H. Hu, Chris Mayfield, and Patricia B. Campbell. Faculty Professional Development for Better Assessment of Student Learning: A Program Evaluation with Life Science Instructors, Marjee Chmiel, Melissa Csikari, Karen Mutch-Jones, Santiago Gasca, and Anushree Bopardikar. An Exploratory Study of STEM Graduate Teaching Assistants’ Perspectives, During a Multi-Semester Professional Development Promoting Evidence-Based Teaching Practices and Equity, Ruthmae Sears, Robert Potter, Kelley Schuler, and Gerry Meisels. Peer Coaching Circles for Ongoing Faculty Development, M. Claire Horner-Devine, Coleen Carrigan, Christine Grant, Cara Margherio, Sheri J. Y. Mizumori, Eve Riskin, Julie Simmons Ivy, and Joyce Yen. Epilogue, The Editorial Team. Contributors.