Optimizing Student Success in School with the Other Three Rs

Reasoning, Resilience, and Responsibility

Edited by:
Robert J. Sternberg, Yale University
Rena F. Subotnik, American Psychological Association

A volume in the series: Research in Educational Productivity. Editor(s): Susan J. Paik, Claremont Graduate University.

Published 2006

The Other Three R’s model began as an American Psychological Association (APA) initiative, sponsored by Robert J. Sternberg, IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University and Past President of the APA. For both this initiative and this edited volume, Sternberg assembled a diverse team of experts who identified reasoning, resilience and responsibility as three learnable skills that, when taken together, have great potential for increasing academic success. The authors of this volume present in detail their evidence-based arguments for promoting TOTRs in schools as a way to optimize student success.

Introduction, Rena F. Subotnik and Gregory A. White. Reasoning, Resilience, and Responsibility from the Standpoint of the WICS Theory of Higher Mental Processes, Robert J. Sternberg. Motivational Orientations that Lead Students to Show Deeper Levels of Reasoning, Greater Responsibility for their Academic Work, and Greater Resilience in the Face of Academic Difficulty, Catherine Good and Carol S. Dweck. Part I: Special Focus on Reasoning. The Role of Knowledge in the Development of Mathematical Reasoning, Richard E. Mayer. Promoting Deaf Children’s Mathematical Reasoning by Using their Visual Spatial Strengths, Terezinha Nunes. Performance Data and Proven Practices: Empowering Tools to Spur High Levels of Student Reasoning and Achievement. Tom Luce and Lee Thompson. Part II: Resilience. Resilience and Risk in Learning: Complex Interactions and Comprehensive Interventions, Mary M. Brabeck and Mary E. Walsh. Resilience as a Factor in Overcoming Obstacles to High Academic Achievement, Edmund W. Gordon and Brenda X. Mejia. Part III:Responsibility. Enhancing Students’ Academic Responsibility and Achievement: A Social Cognitive Self-Regulatory Account, Barry J. Zimmerman. A Motivational Perspective on School Achievement: Taking Responsibility for Learning, Teaching, and Supporting, Jacqueline S. Eccles. Part IV: Model. Integrating The Other Three Rs into the School Curriculum: A Model for Improving Achievement, Jeanine C. Cogan, Robert J. Sternberg, and Rena F. Subotnik. Part V: Summary. The Other 3 Rs: Implications for the Design of Learning Environments, Research, and Policy, Susan Goldman.