Funding Public Schools in the United States, Indian Country, and US Territories

(Second Edition)

Edited by:
Philip Westbrook, University of Alabama
Eric A. Houck, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
R. Craig Wood, University of Florida
David C. Thompson, Kansas State University

A volume in the series: Conducting Research in Education Finance: Methods, Measurement, and Policy Perspectives. Editor(s): David C. Thompson, Kansas State University. R. Craig Wood, University of Florida.

Published 2023

The National Education Finance Academy has once again convened university faculty members, state-level administrators, officials from state level chapters of the Association of School Business Officials, and others to provide a single-volume reference of school funding mechanisms for each of the states, the District of Columbia, Indian Country, and the US territories.

This volume supplements the annual “state-of-the-state” profiles produced by the National Education Finance Academy so that educators, policymakers, and researchers can have access to accurate and concise information on how K12 education functions are supported across multiple jurisdictions. In addition, each profile addresses state level efforts to provide education funding to support schools during the COVID- 19 pandemic.

The second edition expands upon groundbreaking work in the first edition, which for the first time reported comprehensively on the multiple jurisdictions and mechanisms impacting funding for Native American students, by also reporting on policies and funding mechanisms for public schools in US Territories.

America’s Public Schools, William E. Thro. Introduction: Creating a Scholarly Ecosystem for School Finance Studies, Eric A. Houck, Philip Westbrook, R. Craig Wood, and David C. Thompson. PART I: SCHOOL FINANCE MECHANISMS OF THE FIFTY STATES. Alabama, Amy Dagley and Philip Westbrook. Alaska, Amy Dagley and Amy Lujan. Arizona, Daniel W. Eadens and Gayle A. Blanchard. Arkansas, Steve Bounds. California, Ann Blankenship-Knox, Paul Jessup, and Bob Blattner. Colorado, E. Glenn McClain, Jr. and Spencer C. Weiler. Connecticut, Michael Morton and George Sinclair. Delaware, Christopher Brooks. Florida, R. Craig Wood. Georgia, Davíd G. Martínez, Lauren G. Epps, and Patrick D. Bennett. Hawai’I, Brenda Mendiola. Idaho, David C. Thompson. Illinois, Michael A. Jacoby, Benjamin Boer and Melissa Figueira. Indiana, Marilyn A. Hirth and Daniel Hile. Iowa, Ain A. Grooms. Kansas, Kellen J. Adams, S. Craig Neuenswander, and David C. Thompson. Kentucky, William E. Thro. Louisiana, Janet M. Pope, Dannie P. Garrett, III, Markey W. Pierre’, and Wendy Baudoin. Maine, Sharda Jackson Smith. Maryland, Chelsea E. Haines. Massachusetts, David Danning. Michigan, Brett Geier and Scott Sawyer. Minnesota, Nicola A. Alexander. Mississippi, Spencer D. Stone. Missouri, R. Craig Wood and Kai Cui. Montana, Lou L. Sabina and Devon Viola. Nebraska, Joel Applegate, Bryce Wilson, Kellen J. Adams, and David C. Thompson. Nevada, Jacob D. Skousen and R. Karlene McCormick-Lee. New Hampshire, Osnat Zaken. New Jersey, R. Craig Wood and Kai Cui. New Mexico, Marianna Olivares and Cristóbal Rodríguez. New York, Brian O. Brent and Karen J. DeAngelis. North Carolina, Eric A. Houck, Walter Hart, and Jim R. Watson. North Dakota, Eric A. Houck. Ohio, Barbara M. De Luca and Steven A. Hinshaw. Oklahoma, Jeffrey Maiden and Shawn Hime. Oregon, Andy Saultz and Alyssa Nestler. Pennsylvania, Andrew L. Armagost and Timothy J. Shrom. Rhode Island, Jacob D. Skousen. South Carolina, Mazen Aziz and Henry Tran. South Dakota, Wade Pogany and Tyler Pickner. Tennessee, Lisa G. Driscoll. Texas, Catherine E. Knepp and Mary P. McKeown-Moak. Utah, W. Bryan Bowles and Robert W. Smith. Vermont, Tammy Kolbe and D. Akol Aguek. Virginia, William Owings and Leslie S. Kaplan. Washington School Finance: Exploring the History and Present-Day Challenges for Fiscal Equity, David S. Knight, Pooya Almasi, and JoLynn Berge. West Virginia, Keith A. Butcher. Wisconsin, Lisa Lambert Snodgrass. Wyoming, Neil Theobald. PART II: SCHOOL FINANCE IN INDIAN COUNTRY, US TERRITORIES, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. District of Columbia, Michael C. Petko. Indian Country, Alex RedCorn, Meredith L. McCoy, and Hollie J. Mackey. U.S. Territories, Lou L. Sabina and Anna Peters.